The enormous skyscrapers of New York impress its visitors at first sight. The tallest of them is the Empire State Building. It is the background of a lot of films and millions of pictures. Due to its enormous height, the Empire State Building constantly attracts the attention of tourists and is a national monument that has entered the history of the American city forever. Find out more interesting facts and information known about the tallest building at new-york-future.
How did the Empire State Building appear in New York?
The construction boom in New York began at the beginning of the 20th century. There were new houses constantly appearing on the streets. The architects from different companies seemed to be competing with each other to build the tallest skyscraper. The first tallest buildings were the 70-story Wall Street and the 77-story Chrysler Building. When they were about to be implemented, the construction of the Empire State Building, the major among all the skyscrapers of New York, started.
The idea of creating this building was a result of the rivalry between two automobile corporations, Chrysler and General Motors. Each of them was not only willing to build the tallest skyscraper in New York but that in America. Therefore, representatives of each corporation were concealing its height until the last moment.
Thus, in 1930, the construction of the Empire State Building began. The architectural project was elaborated by the firm Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon in 2 weeks. The construction was financed by the American entrepreneur John Raskob and Pierre Du Pont, the president of the Du Pont chemical company.
The land where the skyscraper was built belonged to a farmer John Thompson at the end of the XIII century. Later, the Waldorf-Astoria hotel was erected there. In 1929, General Motors CEO John Raskob bought it for $15 million, and, in a while, the hotel was demolished. Raskob decided to have the Empire State Building built on that very place.
Stages of the Empire State Building Construction
Preparatory works for the construction of the tallest building in New York started on January 22nd, 1930. Builders dug a pit, installed underground utilities, laid a 2-story foundation, and then began to lay the building foundation. It was a commercial project that involved the implementation of a new rapid construction technique in the 20th century.
The organization of construction works was carried out according to the principle of the conveyor assembly. All steel materials were manufactured in the factory with high precision. They were transported by rail, fastened with bolts and rivets, and then faced with bricks. There were coal furnaces on the construction site where steel rivets were especially heated. Construction crews worked in groups of 4. They all received a very high salary because they were engaged in the construction of the tallest building in New York. Additionally, their work required high precision and professionalism and also involved a high level of life threat. In 2001, a monument was erected in their honor on Sixth Avenue.
The builders of the Empire State Building made a steel frame consisting of 210 columns. The 86 floors were completed in 6 months. Despite constructing the frame of the building, the builders were engaged in the installation of electrical and plumbing systems. In addition, 64 passengers and 9 freight elevators were placed in this building. They were divided into 7 groups. Each of them served a certain part of the building.
It is known that 3,400 workers and more than 100 foundries took part in the construction of the tallest building in New York. The pace of its construction was phenomenal. Once, 14 floors were built in 10 days. Builders worked without insurance. It resulted in 5 deaths.
Shapes of the tallest building in New York
- The total weight of the Empire State Building is 331,000 tons and its steel frame is 54,400 tons.
- The total length of the pipes is 113 km and the electric wires are 76 km.
- The stairs lead to the 103rd floor and consist of 1860 steps.
- 7 km of elevator shafts accommodate 73 elevators that can transport 20,000 people per hour.
The grand opening of the Empire State Building took place on May 1, 1931. Until then, the construction had not been completed. After that, installation work was carried out for the next 10 years. In 1952, a spire was installed on top of the building.
Empire State Building design
The skyscraper is built in the Art Deco style. Its top is a 62-meter tower with a spire at the end. The interior space consists of separate sections. Due to the wide panoramic windows, there is always enough daylight.
The facade of the skyscraper is made of limestone and marble, with steel and glass strips. On the first 3 floors, there is a lobby and 3 tiers of shops around it. Up to the 85th floor, there are offices, a tenant-only conference center and fitness center, a grill bar, restaurants and a brewery. The remaining 16 floors are occupied by technical facilities.
Despite this, visitors to the Empire State Building can visit the observation deck located on the 86th floor. It is glazed and equipped with climate control. For people to get a closer look at the legendary buildings of New York, there were binoculars installed. From there, you can enjoy a magnificent view of Central Park, the Hudson and East Rivers, the Brooklyn Bridge, Times Square and the Statue of Liberty.
15 interesting facts about the tallest building in New York
- Not only does the Empire State Building impress with its grandeur and beauty during the day but also at night. The distinctive feature of the skyscraper is the lighting system. It was installed on 30 floors in 1964. Since then, it has been changing depending on the day of the week, significant events, and holidays in America.
- Each year, the stairs of the skyscraper’s building serve as the site of a running competition, with athletes, firefighters and police officers participating.
- The Empire State Building has become worldwide famous for being a popular feature on TV screens. It can be seen in such films as Sleepless in Seattle, Unforgettable Romance, West Side Story and many others.
- The owners of this building make much more money from the observation decks than from renting office space.
- In 1945, there was an accident, namely, a plane crashed between the 89th and 90th floors. As a result, the building swayed but did not fall.
- This skyscraper can withstand about 100 lightning strikes per year.
- The couples that get married on the 80th floor on Valentine’s Day become members of the Empire State Building Wedding Club and receive free access to the observation deck every February 14th.
- Walking around the observation deck of the Empire State Building, you can see different areas of New York.
- On foggy days during the period of bird migration, the lighting is especially turned off so that they do not fly into the walls of the building.
- More than 110 million people visited the tallest skyscraper in New York.
- Every year, the owner of this building organizes a competition for the best photo shoot.
- The building has a closed observation deck on the 103rd floor.
- More than 30 buildings in New York have their ZIP code, including the Empire State Building – 10118.
- It is believed that the skyscraper was built in the shortest period in the world, which is 1 year and 45 days. Once a week, it was possible to build 4,5 floors.
- After the official opening, most of the premises could not be rented out. The skyscraper did not make a profit until 1950.